The submarine volcano at Bogoslof Island in the Aleutian Chain has gone Red twice in two days. An ash plume was sent up 34,000 feet on Wednesday, causing some concern for passing aircraft.
Bogoslof Island was first mapped after it’s eruption in 1796. The 173 acre island has seen six eruptions since then, from various vents. The island rises to 490′ above sea level, but approximately 6000′ from the seabed.
Castle Rock on Bogoslof Island; Photo credit: Ann Harding/AVO
“Castle Rock”, as seen above, is the eroded remnant of a dome from the 1796 eruption. Currently, AVO has downgraded the alert level to Orange.
On the 30 July 1945, the USS Indianapolis was torpedoed by the Japanese submarine I-58. The sinking of the Portland-class cruiser was the greatest single loss of life, at sea, in the history of the U.S. Navy.
Launched on November 7, 1931, and commissioned a year later, the Indianapolis was engaged in a training exercise at Johnston Atoll on the morning of December 7, 1941. After the New Guinea campaign, the Indianapolis would head to the Aleutian Islands, to take part in the shelling of the Japanese held island of Kiska.
After delivering some components, including the enriched uranium, for the atomic bomb that would be dropped on Hiroshima, the Indianapolis departed Guam for Leyte in the Philippines. She would not make it to Leyte. Two Japanese torpedoes intercepted the cruiser, and approximately 300 men went down with the ship. The sinking happened so quickly, that the desperate crew did not have time to get off a distress signal.
It is estimated that roughly 880 men went into the water, with a lucky few getting into life rafts. Even though the Indianapolis was expected in Leyte, no word was given that she did not arrive. By the time the Navy learned of the sinking, the sailors and Marines had been in the water for over three days. A PV-1 Ventura, flying an enemy sub patrol, spotted the oil slick, and then the men bobbing in the water. This was August 2, and by then over half of the men who entered the water had died. They had no food or water, unless they were lucky enough to find something floating among the debris. Hypothermia started to set in, flesh was rotting from the immersion in the water, some men suffered delirium and hallucinations, other drank the salt water. And there were the sharks. Most sharks fed on men that had already died, or that had floated away solo, but there is no doubt, that many men died from the shark attacks directly.
Lt. Adrian Marks commanded a PBY Catalina seaplane to the location. Upon seeing all of the sharks among the floating men, he set the plane onto the water, and taxied around picking up survivors. Marks later said that he made “…heart-breaking decisions”, as the crew singled out survivors that were floating alone or away from groups. “I decided that the men in groups stood the best chance of survival. They could look after one another, could splash and scare away the sharks and could lend one another moral support and encouragement.” In all, Marks and his crew would somehow manage to pull 56 men from the water, even strapping some to the plane’s wings.
The USS Indianapolis had a crew of 1196. 880 survived the torpedoes, of those only 321 came out of the water alive, with four later dying from their injuries after being rescued.
The Captain of the Indianapolis, Charles McVay, would face a court-martial. He was found guilty of “hazarding his ship by failing to zigzag”. The Japanese commander of I-58 testified that zigzagging would not have saved the ship. In fact, the Navy’s orders to McVay, were to “zigzag at his discretion, weather permitting”. Charles McVay would retire from the U.S. Navy in 1949 as a rear admiral. He took his own life in 1968 with his Navy service revolver.
The USS Indianapolis had been awarded 10 Battle Stars for its actions during WWII.
Survivors of the sinking of the USS Indianapolis, in Guam – August 1945
The remnant of Typhoon Nuri is leaving the coast of Japan and is now heading towards the Aleutian Islands. The intense storm is surpassing the strength of Superstorm Sandy of 2012. Hurricane force winds and waves of 50 feet are expected. The forecast then calls for the storm to weaken in the Bering Sea where it will join the jet stream and drop temperatures across the Great Lake states.
Interior Alaska is expected to continue to see rather mild temperatures.
A Japanese shipwreck in 1780 led to the introduction of rats to this island on the Aleutian Chain. The rats thrived, and by 1827 when Russian Captain Fyodor Litke visited the Aleutian Islands, the rats had so overwhelmed the island that he gave it the rather obvious name of “Rat”.
With no trees, the ground nesting birds had no chance, and the island became barren and silent. Even sea urchins who came upon shore were devoured, and the rats ended up going cannibalistic to survive.
In 2008, several conservation groups teamed up with the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service to eradicate the rats. The island was bombarded with 46 metric tonnes of rodenticide. By 2010, the island had been declared rat free.
The sea birds quickly returned, and now they are once again thriving 233 years after the rats took over the island.
The island has officially been renamed Hawadax Island, using the Aleut word for “entry” and “welcome”.
Hawadax Island, which is unpopulated and covers just over 10 square miles of surface area, lies within the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. There are currently 16 other islands in the Aleutain Chain with invasive rat populations.
There were casualities other than the rats. 46 bald eagles were found dead on the island after the poison drop. Of the eagles tested, 75% had lethal levels of the rodenticide brodifacoum. Also found were 320 seagull carcasses and 54 carcasses representing 25 different species of birds.
Rats are not native to Alaska, and the 1780 shipwreck is the first known introduction of the species to the state. The State of Alaska has very aggressive anti-rat policies in an effort to limit the invasion of the species. In the city of Anchorage, which is still believed to be rat-free, it is illegal to possess any kind of rat, outside of research facilities which have to apply for a permit.